Kamis, 03 Juni 2010

PSYCHOLINGUISTICS

WILD AND ISOLATED CHILDREN
Legends, Evil Kings and Emperor
· Evil Experiments: Psamtik I of Egypt, James IV of Scotland, Frederick II, Akbar the Great (India).
· The Enlightenment and the Nobel Savage: - Edgar Rice Burroughs’s Tarzan,
· Children raised by animals (Wolf Children),
· Children in isolation from language.egends, Evil Kings and Emperor

Victor: The Wild Boy of Aveyron
· January 1800, a naked boy around 11 or 12 years old was captured by hunters in the woods in the Aveyron district of France.
· He made no sounds other than guttural animal-like noise.
· Probably he had been abandoned originally, but at what age or by whom could never be ascertained.

Victor……
· Sicard (the director of the Institute for Deaf-Mutes in Paris) tries but fails to educate Victor.
· Itard (educator) tries teaching speech and succeeds a little.
· Itard tries reading (written language) and succeeds, but fails at speech

Genie: Raised in Isolation
· Genie is discovered at 13 years of age, brutally treated by her father for 12 years.
· She had no human voices, because her father could not tolerate noise, and her only contact with another human was when being fed and beaten.
· Genie is given freedom and care.

Genie……
· Rapid language understanding in one year èer utterance “Father take piece of wood. Hit. Cry.”
· Slow advance in speech production èno spontaneous outbursts as in normal children.
· Genie reaches a peak in language learningèremained below normal and ungrammatical.

Isabelle: Confinement with a mute mother
· Isabelle was confined with a mute mother until 6½ years of age.
· Isabelle’s Progress:
Ø First spoken sounds ‘ball’ and ‘car’,
Ø then producing sentence utterances,
Ø retelling the story in limited vocab,
Ø After 20 months, producing full length sentences and intelligent questioning.

Chelsea: A Tragic Case of Misdiagnosis
· Misdiagnosed as retarded, not deaf, Chelsea did not receive any language training.
· She grew up in a loving family.
· When at the age of 32, it was discovered that she was only partially hearing-impaired.

Chelsea….
· Through language instruction, Chelsea ahs developed an extensive vocab but lack any word order like ‘The woman is bus the going’, ‘breakfast eating girl’, etc.
· Although she is unable to form grammatically correct utterances, she is able to communicate with others and has become social and independent.

Helen Keller: The Renowned Deaf and Blind Girl
· Helen becomes deaf and blind at 19 months then secures a teacher, thus she had already experienced some degree of language comprehension and production.
· She learned language through touch and later learned to speak, read and produce Braille.
· She could graduate from Radcliffe/Harvard univ. and become an acclaimed lecturer and writer.

A Critical Age for First-Language Acquisition
· Why did only Isabelle and Helen fully learn language?
1. Children must be exposed to language as early as possible.
· Two major factors governing language learning:
1. the age at which exposure to language began,
2. the extent of any physical, psychological and social trauma before exposure to language.

A Critical Age …..
The achievement of Isabelle and Helen:
· Contrast sharply with Victor and Genie,
· Helen had been exposed to language at her first 19 months and has a loving family,
· Isabelle could benefit from her mother’s affection,
· So the affection and social exposure support are very essential in language development.

Is there a Critical Age for First-Language Learning??
· The fact that Isabelle and Helen started to learn language at an early age, Isabelle at 6 years old, Helen at 7 years old.
· What is Critical Age??
· Understand the film and find the experiences by Helen Keller in the terms of critical age for first-language acquisition and how the teacher exposed her a special language.
















THE DEVELOPMENT OF SPEECH PRODUCTION

Intro
• From birth, children are exposed to a variety of noises in their environment.
• Before they can begin to acquire language, they must first separate non-speech noises to speech sounds.
• From around 1 month, children exhibit the ability to distinguish among certain speech sounds.

Vocalization to Babbling
• Before uttering speech sounds, infants make a variety of sounds, crying, cooing, gurgling, even children who are born deaf. à appear to be unlearned.
• Later, around the 7th month, children ordinarily begin to babble, to produce repeated syllables (‘syllable reduplication’), e.g. ‘baba’, ‘gigi’, ‘momo’ (the basic Consonant + Vowel type) or ‘panpan’ (the simple Consonant + Vowel + Consonant variety).

Babbling to Speech
• At around 1 years old (or earlier/later) à the advanced stage of babbling à uttering first words.
• Babbling increases in frequency until the age of about 12 month à children start to produce their first understandable words.

Phonological Development
• The sound patterns found in child language are quite different from those used by adults in terms of the segments and phonotactic combination.
• Phonological Development
• One frequent process in children’s speech involves the systematic deletion of certain sounds in order to simplify syllable structure.
[s] + stop (strategy: delete [s])
• Stop à [tɒp]
• Desk à [dek]
Fricative + liquid (strategy: delete liquid)
• From à [fʌm]
• Sleep à [si:p]
Phonological Development
• One of the most widespread phonetic processes in early language involves substitution – the systematic replacement of one sound by an alternative that the child apparently finds easier to articulate

Phonological Development
• Still another widespread phonetic process in child language is assimilation – the modification of one or more features of a segment under the influence of neighboring sounds

Morphological Development
• Initially, the words of English-speaking seem to lack any internal morphological structure. Affixes are entirely absent and most words consist of a single root morpheme. Gradually, inflectional and derivational morpheme appear, marking an increased capacity for word formation.
Ø Jumped à jump
Ø Brought à bring
Ø Went à goed
Ø Bought à buyed
Ø Taught à teached

Morphological Development
• In a language such as English, which has many examples of irregular inflection, children often begin by simply memorizing forms on a case-by-case without for general patterns/rules
Ø men as the plural of man
Ø ran as the past of run
Ø mans for the plural of man
Ø runned for the past of run

Syntactic Development
• The emergence of syntactic rules takes place in an orderly sequence.
• Beginning with the production of one-word utterances near the end of the 1st year of life, children gradually master the rules for sentence formation in their language.

Syntactic Development
• Children begin to produce one-word utterances between the ages of 12 months and 18 months. A basic property of these word utterances is that they can be used to express the type of meaning that would be associated with an entire sentence in adult speech.

Holophrases
Assertion
dada
‘I see Daddy’
more
‘Give me more juice’
up
‘I want up’

Syntactic Development
• Within a few months of their first one-word utterances, children begin to produce two-word ‘mini-sentences.’
‘Mini-sentences’
Assertion
Baby chair
‘The baby is sitting on the chair’
Doggie bark
‘The dog is barking’
Daddy hat
‘Daddy’s hat’

Syntactic Development
• After a period of several months, during which their speech is limited to one and two-word utterances, children begin to produce longer and more complex grammatical structures.
Examples of Telegraphic Stage
Chair broken.
Daddy like book.
What her name?
Car make noise
Me wanna show Mommy.
I good boy.

The Development of Phrase Structure
Stage
Approx. age
Developments
Holophrastic
1 – 1.5 years
Single word utterance, no structure
Two-word
1.5 – 2 years
Early work combinations; presence of syntactic categories unclear
Telegraphic
2 – 2.5 years
Emergence of phrase structure, esp. head-complement & Subject-VP pattern
Later
2.5 years up
Emergence of non-lexical categories (Det, Aux) including those used as specifiers à Inversion, Wh questions.

Semantic Development
• By age 18 months or so, the average child has a vocabulary of 50 words or more. Common items in the first 50 words contain Entities, Properties, Actions and Personal Social.
Entities
• Names for people: daddy, mummy, etc.
• Words referring to humans (baby), food/drink (juice, milk, water, apple), animals (dogs, cats, duck), clothes (shoes, hat), toys (ball, doll), vehicles (car, bus) and other.
Ø Properties (hot, more, dirty, cold, here)
Ø Actions (up, sit, see, eat, down)
Ø Personal Social (Hello, bye, no, yes, thank you)

Semantic Development (The Acquisition of Word Meaning)
• A major factor in lexical development is the child’s ability to make use of contextual clues to draw inferences/conclusions about the category and meaning of new words. For ex: from early in the language acquisition process, children can use the presence or absence of determiners (the, a, some, etc.) to distinguish between names and ordinary nouns.
• Children are also able to use the meaning of other words in the sentence and their understanding of the non-linguistic context to form hypothesis about new words.

Semantic Development
• In cases of overextension, the meaning of the child’s word is more general or inclusive than that of the corresponding adult form.
• Spatial and dimensional terms like: in, on, under, behind, big-small, tall-short, thick-thin, etc.
Word
1st Referent (s)
Subsequent Extensions
Tick Tock
watch
Clocks, gas-meter, scale with round dial
Quack
duck
All birds and insects, flies
Candy
candy
Cherries, anything sweet

Linguistic Performance (Aitchison and Crutterden)
Umur
Performansi Linguistik
0.3
Mulai meraban
0.9
Pola intonasi telah kedengaran
1.0
Kalimat satu kata (Holoprhases)
1.3
Lapar kata (Overgeneralization)
1.8
Ujaran dua kata
2.0
Infleksi, kalimat tiga kata (Telegraphic)
2.3
Mulai menggunakan kata ganti
2.6
Kalimat tanya, kalimat negasi, kalimat 4 kata, peralatan vokal telah sempurna
3.6
Pelafalan konsonan telah sempurna
4.0
Kalimat sederhana yg tepat tetapi msh terbatas
5.0
Konstruksi morfologis, sintaksis telah sempurna
10.0
Matang berbicara





















SECOND LANGUAGE LEARNING AND BILINGUALISM


Introduction
• In Indonesia, language can be divided into three: 1) bahasa Indonesia, 2) native/regional language, 3) foreign language.
• So, we have first language (native/regional language), second language (bahasa Indonesia), and foreign language (e.g. English).

Learning Concept
• Learning is a process to master or get knowledge or skill in certain field by studying, searching experience or being taught (Brown, 1980).
• Learning is process and activity.

Learning Concept
• Learning is a process to master or get knowledge or skill.
• Learning is an effort to save information or skill.
• The students use system of saving, memorizing and cognitive organization.
• Learning contains activity, attention on events inside and outside organism.
• Etc.

Second Language Learning
• Second Language Learning: A process where someone acquires another language after he/she mastered his/her first language.
• Stern thinks that second language (bahasa kedua) = foreign language (bahasa asing).

Terms for Language
First language (bahasa pertama)
Native language (Bahasa asli)
Mother tongue (Bahasa ibu)
Primary Language (Bahasa utama)
Stronger language (Bahasa kuat)
Second Language (Bahasa Kedua)
Nonnative language (Bukan bahasa asli)
Foreign language (Bahasa asing)
Secondary Language (Bahasa kedua)
Weaker language (Bahasa lemah)

Other Terms…..
• Language of wider communication
• Standard Language (bahasa baku)
• Regional language (bahasa regional)
• National language
• Official language (bahasa resmi)
• Modern language
• Classical language

The Characteristics of Learning Language
• First Language Learning Process
• Second Language Learning Process

The Characteristics of First Learning Language
• Unintentional learning
• From the birth
• Family environment as the influencing factor
• Motivation for the need
• Long period of time to expose
• The learner has enough time to communicate

The Characteristics of Second Learning Language
• Intentional Learning
• Since schooling
• School environment as the influencing factor
• Less motivation
• Limited time
• Not enough time to practice
• First language will influence the second language

Bilingualism
• Bilingualism is the ability to master the use of two languages, and multilingualism is the ability to master the use of more than two languages.
• Bilingualism and multilingualism often involve different degrees of competence in the languages involved. A person may control one language better than another, or a person might have mastered the different languages better for different purposes, using one language for speaking, for example, and another for writing.

The Influence of First Language on the Learning Process of Second Language
• Although second-language acquisition literally refers to learning a language after having acquired a first language, the term is frequently used to refer to the acquisition of a second language after a person has reached puberty. Whereas children experience little difficulty in acquiring more than one language, after puberty people generally must expend greater effort to learn a second language and they often achieve lower levels of competence in that language. People learn second languages more successfully when they become immersed in the cultures of the communities that speak those languages. People also learn second languages more successfully in cultures in which acquiring a second language is expected, as in most African countries, than they do in cultures in which second-language proficiency is considered unusual, as in most English-speaking countries.















LANGUAGE AND BRAIN
The Hemispheres of the Brain
• The general structure of the brain is that of a whole which is divided into vertical halves which seem to be mirror images of one another.
• It looks much like a walnut with the two parts joined around the middle, except there is little space between the two halves in the real brain.
• Each half of the brain is called a hemisphere. There is a left hemisphere and a right hemisphere.
• The hemispheres come out of the brain stem, which connects to the spinal cord.

Language Areas and their Functioning
• Broca’s area, the motor area, and speech production
• Wernicke’s area, the auditory area, and speech understanding/comprehension

Broca’s Area
• Pierre Paul Broca was a French pathologist and neurosurgeon (1824-1880) who made the first great discovery regarding brain and language.
• He discovered a certain area that is involved with the production of speechèBroca’s area.
• Broca noted that the speech area is adjacent to the region of the motor cortex which controls the movement of the muscles of the articulators of speech: the tongue, lips, jaw, soft palate, vocal cords, etc.
• He posited that speech is formulated in Broca’s Area and then articulated via the motor area sent to the articulators of speech for vocalization.

Wernicke’s Area
• Carl Wernicke, a German neurologist (1848-1905) reasoned that in the same way two other areas of the brain must similarly be involved in the process of speech comprehension.
• He discovered, near the part of the cortex in the temporal lobe which receives auditory stimuli, an area which was involved in the understanding of speech (Wernicke’s area).
• According to Wernicke, on hearing a word, the sound of a word goes from the ear to the auditory area and then to Wernicke’s Area. It is from Broca’s Area that the vocalization of speech would then be activated.

Reading
• When a word is read, according to Wernicke, the information goes from the eyes to the visual area of the cortex in the occipital lobe, from there to angular gyrus, then to Wernicke’s Area and then to Broca’s Area, which causes the auditory form of the word to be activated.
Language Disorder

Aphasia
• Aphasia (Greek a, “not”; phanai, “to speak”), term introduced by the French physician Armand Trousseau to denote inability to express thought by means of speech, as a consequence of certain brain disorders. The meaning has since been extended to cover loss of the faculty of interchanging thought, so that it may even denote a temporary but complete loss of memory.

Broca’s Aphasia & Wernicke’s Aphasia
• Damage to Broca's area in the frontal lobe causes difficulty in speaking and writing, a problem known as Broca's aphasia. Injury to Wernicke's area in the left temporal lobe results in an inability to comprehend spoken language, called Wernicke's aphasia.

Others Aphasia :
Pure Word Deafness
Damage to the area which leads into Wernicke’s area from the auditory cortex may result in pure word deafness, where one cannot recognize the sounds of words as speech but can hear other types of sounds.
Conduction Aphasia
Characterized by poor ability to repeat words despite relatively good comprehension.
Anomic Aphasia
Problems in finding the proper words for spontaneous speech, even though language comprehension and repletion are good.
Apraxia
Patients being unable, in response to a verbal command, to perform skilled motor movement with their hands, even though they understand the command and their spontaneous hand movements are perfectly normal.
Global Aphasia
A terrible condition in which many or all aspect of language are severely affected, presumably due to massive damage at numerous sites in the left hemisphere or to critical connections between language areas.
Dyslexia, the inability to learn to read fluently.

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