Selasa, 03 Mei 2011



¢ Evidence

¢ You can often make some pretty good guesses about various characteristics of the speaker, even though the speaker had said nothing explicitly about himself/herself.

¢ When the caller (on the phone) is an adult it is usually easy to tell whether a speaker is female or male. If the person has a distinctive regional accent, then their regional origins will be evident even from a short utterance. And it may also be possible to make a reasonable guess about the person’s socio-economic or educational background.

¢ Basic Concepts

¢ Language and Dialect è ambiguous terms

¢ Ex. Although Hindi & Urdu are the same languages, but for political and religious reasons are regarded as the different ones.

¢ What about Indonesian and Malaysian?

¢ Basic Concepts

} Language: some unitary system of linguistic communication which subsumes a number of mutually intelligible varieties.

} Variety: a specific set of ‘linguistic items’ or ‘human speech patterns’ (sound, words, grammatical features) which we can uniquely associate with some external factor (a geographical area/a social group. Ex. Standard English, lower-class New York speech, etc.

¢ Basic Concepts

¢ Dialect: a subordinate variety of a language. Ex. British English, American English, Ngapak Javanese, Solo Javanese, etc.

¢ Vernacular: the speech of a particular country/region or informal speech style or the common, everyday language or ordinary people in a particular locality.

¢ Koine: a form of speech shared by people of different vernaculars or a regional dialect that has become the common language of a larger area.

¢ Regional Dialect

¢ Reg. Dialect: A variety of language that is spoken in a geographical area for many hundred of years as seen in differences in pronunciations, in the choices and forms of words, and in syntax (and distinctive local ‘colorings’).

¢ Ex. Ngapak Javanese, Yogya Javanese.

¢ What about Inglish (Indonesian English)? Javlish (Javanese English)?

¢ An Example of New Zealander’s Accent

¢ ‘Gidday,’ said the young man who opened the door. ‘What can I do for you?’

¢ ‘I’ve called to see me old mate Don Stone,’ said the visitor.

¢ ‘Oh he’s dead now mate,’ said the young man.

¢ The visitor was about to express condolences, but ……

¢ The young man, in fact, had said, ‘Here’s dad now mate’, as his father came in the gate.

¢ Different Pronunciation

¢ Different Vocabulary

¢ American or British?

American or British Grammar??

¢ Social Dialect

¢ Social Dialect: Differences in speech associated with various social groups or classes.

¢ Various factors to determine social position è occupation, place of residence, education, income, racial origin, cultural background, caste, etc.

¢ Ex. Black English, Javanese speech level

¢ Received Pronunciation (RP)

¢ RP: the accent of the best educated and most prestigious members of English society.

¢ It was promoted by the BBC for decades. It is essentially a social accent, not a regional one. Indeed, it conceals a speaker’s regional origin.

¢ Standard English

¢ Just as RP, standard English is a social dialect.

¢ It is the dialect used by well-educated English speakers throughout the world.

¢ It is the variety used for national news broadcasts and in print, and it is the variety generally taught in English-speaking schools.

¢ Two Javanese words at Different Stylistic Levels

¢ Summary

¢ Accents are distinguished from each other by pronunciation alone. Different dialects are generally distinguishable in pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar.

¢ Regional dialects are geographically based; social dialects originate from social groups and depend on a variety of factors.

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