¢ You can often make some pretty good guesses about various characteristics of the speaker, even though the speaker had said nothing explicitly about himself/herself.
¢ When the caller (on the phone) is an adult it is usually easy to tell whether a speaker is female or male. If the person has a distinctive regional accent, then their regional origins will be evident even from a short utterance. And it may also be possible to make a reasonable guess about the person’s socio-economic or educational background.
¢ Basic Concepts
¢ Language and Dialect è ambiguous terms
¢ Ex. Although Hindi & Urdu are the same languages, but for political and religious reasons are regarded as the different ones.
¢ What about Indonesian and Malaysian?
¢ Basic Concepts
} Language: some unitary system of linguistic communication which subsumes a number of mutually intelligible varieties.
} Variety: a specific set of ‘linguistic items’ or ‘human speech patterns’ (sound, words, grammatical features) which we can uniquely associate with some external factor (a geographical area/a social group. Ex. Standard English, lower-class New York speech, etc.
¢ Basic Concepts
¢ Dialect: a subordinate variety of a language. Ex. British English, American English, Ngapak Javanese, Solo Javanese, etc.
¢ Vernacular: the speech of a particular country/region or informal speech style or the common, everyday language or ordinary people in a particular locality.
¢ Koine: a form of speech shared by people of different vernaculars or a regional dialect that has become the common language of a larger area.
¢ Regional Dialect
¢ Reg. Dialect: A variety of language that is spoken in a geographical area for many hundred of years as seen in differences in pronunciations, in the choices and forms of words, and in syntax (and distinctive local ‘colorings’).
¢ Ex. Ngapak Javanese, Yogya Javanese.
¢ What about Inglish (Indonesian English)? Javlish (Javanese English)?
¢ An Example of New Zealander’s Accent
¢ ‘Gidday,’ said the young man who opened the door. ‘What can I do for you?’
¢ ‘I’ve called to see me old mate Don Stone,’ said the visitor.
¢ ‘Oh he’s dead now mate,’ said the young man.
¢ The visitor was about to express condolences, but ……
¢ The young man, in fact, had said, ‘Here’s dad now mate’, as his father came in the gate.
¢ Different Pronunciation
¢ Different Vocabulary
¢ American or British?
American or British Grammar??
¢ Social Dialect
¢ Social Dialect: Differences in speech associated with various social groups or classes.
¢ Various factors to determine social position è occupation, place of residence, education, income, racial origin, cultural background, caste, etc.
¢ Ex. Black English, Javanese speech level
¢ Received Pronunciation (RP)
¢ RP: the accent of the best educated and most prestigious members of English society.
¢ It was promoted by the BBC for decades. It is essentially a social accent, not a regional one. Indeed, it conceals a speaker’s regional origin.
¢ Standard English
¢ Just as RP, standard English is a social dialect.
¢ It is the dialect used by well-educated English speakers throughout the world.
¢ It is the variety used for national news broadcasts and in print, and it is the variety generally taught in English-speaking schools.
¢ Two Javanese words at Different Stylistic Levels
¢ Accents are distinguished from each other by pronunciation alone. Different dialects are generally distinguishable in pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar.
¢ Regional dialects are geographically based; social dialects originate from social groups and depend on a variety of factors.