Selasa, 03 Mei 2011


(Masyarakat Tutur)

n Language and Speech

n Langage è language as sound symbol system used to communicate and interact verbally among human beings è refers to language generally.

n Langue è language as sound symbol system used to communicate and interact verbally in a certain community è refers to certain language è English, Javanese

n Parole è the implementation of langue in utterance or speech produced by the member of society in communication è concrete and empirical.

n Verbal Repertoire

n Chomsky è Performance and Competence

n Halliday è Communicative Competence

n Verbal Repertoire è All languages and their styles that are owned or mastered by a speaker (individually) and community.

n Speech Repertoire (in Wardhaugh): the range of linguistic varieties which the speaker has at his disposal and which he may appropriately use as a member of his speech community à Idiolect.

n Definitions of Speech Community

n Noam Chomsky è “ideal” è homogeneous à Not our concern

n John Lyon è “real”

n William Labov è participation in a set of shared norms or common feeling about linguistic behavior in the community

n Gumperz è linguistic community: a social group è by frequency of social interaction patterns

n The member of speech community èshare a set of grammatical rules èlanguage use & social structure

n The concept of “group”, “language/dialect”, and “norm” è essential

n Hymes è participating in a speech community (un-fully fledged speaker) and becoming the member of a speech community (fully fledged member) which knows the knowledge of patterns of speaking and grammar.

n Discussion

n Try to label yourself according to what kind (s) of English you speak. Explain why you choose the specific terms and any connotations these terms have for you.

n Discussion

n In what respects do (or did) the following pairs of people belong to the same speech communities or to different ones: Indira Gandhi and Margaret Thatcher, John Lennon and Spice Girls, Mahathir Muhammad and SBY?

n Discussion

n Describe the linguistic uses of some bilinguals with whom you are familiar. When do they use each of the language? If you are bilingual/multilingual yourself, what is your speech community?

n Intersecting Communities

n There are “typical” persons from each place

n A person may belong to at any one time many different groups/communities depending on the particular ends.

n Therefore, each individual is a member of many different speech communities.

n These communities è may or may not overlap è intersecting communities.

n Networks

n How an individual relates to other individuals in society à What networks he/she participates in à How and what occasions does a specific individual A interact now with B, then with c, and then again with D?

n A Multiplex Network à one in which an individual is tied to others in a variety of ways.

n A Uniplex Network à one in which people are related to thers in only a single way.

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