n SPEECH COMMUNITY
n Language and Speech
n Langage è language as sound symbol system used to communicate and interact verbally among human beings è refers to language generally.
n Langue è language as sound symbol system used to communicate and interact verbally in a certain community è refers to certain language è English, Javanese
n Parole è the implementation of langue in utterance or speech produced by the member of society in communication è concrete and empirical.
n Verbal Repertoire
n Chomsky è Performance and Competence
n Halliday è Communicative Competence
n Verbal Repertoire è All languages and their styles that are owned or mastered by a speaker (individually) and community.
n Speech Repertoire (in Wardhaugh): the range of linguistic varieties which the speaker has at his disposal and which he may appropriately use as a member of his speech community à Idiolect.
n Definitions of Speech Community
n Noam Chomsky è “ideal” è homogeneous à Not our concern
n John Lyon è “real”
n William Labov è participation in a set of shared norms or common feeling about linguistic behavior in the community
n Gumperz è linguistic community: a social group è by frequency of social interaction patterns
n The member of speech community èshare a set of grammatical rules èlanguage use & social structure
n The concept of “group”, “language/dialect”, and “norm” è essential
n Hymes è participating in a speech community (un-fully fledged speaker) and becoming the member of a speech community (fully fledged member) which knows the knowledge of patterns of speaking and grammar.
n Try to label yourself according to what kind (s) of English you speak. Explain why you choose the specific terms and any connotations these terms have for you.
n In what respects do (or did) the following pairs of people belong to the same speech communities or to different ones: Indira Gandhi and Margaret Thatcher, John Lennon and Spice Girls, Mahathir Muhammad and SBY?
n Describe the linguistic uses of some bilinguals with whom you are familiar. When do they use each of the language? If you are bilingual/multilingual yourself, what is your speech community?
n Intersecting Communities
n There are “typical” persons from each place
n A person may belong to at any one time many different groups/communities depending on the particular ends.
n Therefore, each individual is a member of many different speech communities.
n These communities è may or may not overlap è intersecting communities.
n How an individual relates to other individuals in society à What networks he/she participates in à How and what occasions does a specific individual A interact now with B, then with c, and then again with D?
n A Multiplex Network à one in which an individual is tied to others in a variety of ways.
n A Uniplex Network à one in which people are related to thers in only a single way.