• S P E A K I N G
• THE ETHNOGRAPHY OF COMMUNICATION
• Varieties of Talk
• Speech is used in different ways among different groups of people
• The !Kung have certain customs which help them either to avoid or to reduce friction and hostility within bands and between bands.
• The Western Apache choose silence as their communication way.
• What about your culture?
• The Concept of “SPEAKING”
• Dell Hymes è An Ethnography of a communicative event: a description of all factors that are relevant in understanding how that particular communicative event achieves its objectives èthe acronym of “SPEAKING”
• Setting and Scene (S) èSetting: time and place (concrete physical circumstance); Scene: abstract psychological setting
è for example: A political party campaign may occur in Kridosono stadium on Sunday at 10 to 12 o’clock which is conveyed in democratic scene/atmosphere.
• Participants (P) è the speaker-listener in a speech event
è For example: the teacher is the speaker while the students are the listeners in a discussion/lecture in a class.
• Ends (E) è the conventionally recognized and expected outcomes/goals that the participants want to achieve.
è For example: Each of the various participants have his/her own unique goals in a marriage ceremony. What is/are yours?
• Act Sequence (A) èthe actual form and content of what is said by a speaker who gets his/her turn è the words used, how they are used, and the relationships of what is said and to the actual topic at hand.
è For example: In a seminar, each participant (participant, moderator, speaker) has chance to speak based on the rule.
• Key (K) è the tone, manner, or spirit in which a particular message is conveyed: light-hearted, serious, mocking, sarcastic, etc or behavior, gestures, or posture.
è For example: In a seminar each person must convey his ideas seriously in deep tone to convince other people.
• Instrumentalities (I) è the channel or instruments used to express ideas, e.g. oral, written, or telegraphic and the actual forms of speech used, e.g. language, dialect, code, etc.
è For example: In a serious and formal discussion, the language style used is usually the formal one, whether in oral or written form.
• Norms of Interaction and Interpretation (N) è the specific behaviors and rules must be shared by the participants in a speech event.
èFor example: In order that a seminar runs well, each participants must understand and obey the rule, e.g. he must listen to other people’s speaking or must be patient to wait for his chance to speak.
• Genre (G) è the types of utterance which are different between one speech and the others è poems, sermons, prayers, lectures, etc.
è For example: the style/type of language used in poems is different from that of prayers.
• The SPEAKING formula is a very necessary reminder that talk is very complex and “skilled work”
• There are “better” speakers and “poorer” speakers.
• Language Functions (Halliday)
• Instrumental èsatisfying some material need
• Regulatory èregulating the behavior of people
• Interactional èmaintaining social relationship
• Heuristic èinvestigating the environment
• Imaginative èplaying and creating
• Representational è expressing propositions
• Language Functions (Robinson)
• Conformity to norms
• Encounter regulation
• Regulation (of self and others)
• Marking of emitter
• Role relationship marking
• Meta-language functions
• There is more to understanding how language is used than describing the syntactic composition of sentences
• Gumperz says: “Whereas linguistic competence covers the speaker’s ability to produce grammatically correct sentences, communicative competence describes his ability to select forms which appropriately reflect the social norms governing behavior in specific encounters”
• Make a group of 5 persons.
• Determine and explain the concept of SPEAKING from a speech of event (dialogue) you choose.
• To do so, record the dialogue and transcribe in a written text.