Selasa, 03 Mei 2011

STYLE AND REGISTER

STYLE AND REGISTER

Language Varieties

– Slang and Jargon –

Style

Style is language variation which reflects changes in situational factors, such as addressee, setting, task or topic.

Style is often analyzed along a scale of formality.

The level of formality is influenced by some factors like the various differences among the participants, topic, emotional involvement, etc.

(Janet Holmes, 2001)

Addressee as an Influence on Style

Age of addressee è People generally talk to the very young and to the very old è For example: Baby-talk

Social background of addressee è People talk differently to the higher class and to the lower class è For example: The pronunciation of newsreaders on different radio station

(Janet Holmes, 2001)

Context, Style and Class
(Some Examples)

Formal contexts and social roles

Different style within an interview

Colloquial style or the vernacular

The interaction of social class and style

(Janet Holmes, 2001)

Register

Registers are specific sets of vocabulary items associated with different occupational group or the language of groups of people with common interests or jobs.

For example: the language used by airplane pilots, surgeons, bank managers, jazz fans, commentators, etc.

(Janet Holmes, 2001: 246)

Slang

Slang is a label that is frequently used to denote certain informal or faddish usages of nearly anyone in the speech community

Slang is special vocabulary used by any set of persons of a low or disreputable character; language of a low and vulgar type (Oxford Dictionary).

Nowadays, slang is often applied to aspects of the language of adolescents or others who are perceived as speaking non-standard varieties of the language.

(Contemporary Linguistics, 1997:555)

Slang

Slang exist alongside jargon and argot

The use of slang plays a major role in the maintenance of the gang’s group identity.

It separates the in-group, who use the slang, from the rest of society who do not and are not part of the gang.

For example: Glasgow slang, American university (UCLA) slang, etc.

(Contemporary Linguistics, 1997: 555)

The Examples of Glasgow Slang

Slang

Crap-bag è

Punters è

Malky è

Snide gear è

Sleekit è

Peter è

Meaning

Coward

Fellow gang members

Weapon

Unfashionable clothes

Cunning

Police or prison cell

Slang

Slang is area of vocabulary which reflects a person’s age.

Current slang is the linguistic prerogative of young people and generally sounds odd in the mouth of an older person.

It signals membership of a particular group – the young.

For example: spiffing, topping, super, groovy, fab, etc.

(Janet Holmes, 2001: 167)

Jargon and Argot

The terms jargon and argot are often used almost interchangeably to refer to “obscure or secret language” or “language of a particular occupational group”.

The term argot arose in the 17th century as the label for a speech variety used by French beggars and street merchants and later was applied to the secret language of criminals.

(Contemporary Linguistics, 1997: 557)

Jargon and Argot

It is a label for speech varieties associated with social groups whose members wish or must conceal themselves or some aspects of their communication from non-members.

Jargon or argot is restricted to a smaller number and is more obscure to outsiders than slang.

(Contemporary Linguistics, 1997: 555-557)

The Examples of Jargon and Argot

Cockney rhyming slang è English argot used among navies in London’s East End in the 19th century (bees & honey è money, merry-go-round èpound sterling)

Gay lingo è used among homosexual co.

Hacker jargon (freeware, happiware, etc.)

Cyberspace jargon (www, mailing list, e-mail, etc.).

(Contemporary Linguistics, 1997: 558-561)


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